After a period of travel in Africa and the Middle East which included completing the Hajj, he repudiated the Nation of Islam, disavowed racism and founded Muslim Mosque, Inc. and the Organization of Afro-American Unity.
In February 1965 he was assassinated by three Nation of Islam members. The Autobiography of Malcolm X, published shortly after his death, is considered one of the most influential nonfiction books of the 20th century.
May 19, 1925
Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.
|Died||February 21, 1965 (aged 39)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Cause of death
|Assassination (multiple gunshots)|
|Other names||El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz|
|Organization||Nation of Islam, Muslim Mosque, Inc., Organization of Afro-American Unity|
|Height||6 ft 3 in (191 cm)|
|Weight||180 lb (12 st 12 lb; 82 kg)|
(converted from Nation of Islam)
|Spouse(s)||Betty Shabazz (m. 1958)|
Gamilah Lumumba Shabazz
Louise Helen Norton Little
By the late 1950s, MalcolmX was using a new name, Malcolm Shabazz or Malik el-Shabazz, although he was still widely referred to as MalcolmX. His comments on issues and events were now being reported in print, on radio, and on television, and he was featured in a 1959 New York City television broadcast about the Nation of Islam, The Hate That Hate Produced.
In September 1960, at the United Nations General Assembly in New York City, MalcolmX was invited to the official functions of several African nations. He met Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, Ahmed Sékou Touré of Guinea, and Kenneth Kaunda of the Zambian African National Congress. Fidel Castro also attended the Assembly, and MalcolmX met publicly with him as part of a welcoming committee of Harlem community leaders. Castro was sufficiently impressed with MalcolmX to suggest a private meeting, and after two hours of talking Castro invited MalcolmX to visit Cuba.